Eye Disorders- Symptoms and Treatment

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Eyes are very fragile part of our body when it comes to handling allergies, infections or diseases.Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to any symptoms that may be a cause of any major eye problems. Here is a list of some eye problems, their symptoms and course of treatment.

Presbyopia is the loss of the ability to clearly see close objects or small print. It is a normal process that happens slowly over a lifetime, but you may only notice any change after the age of 40. It is often corrected with reading glasses.

Dry eyes happen when tear glands cannot make enough tears.  Symptoms are itching and burning in the eyes. It is generally treated with eye drops that stimulate tears or act as lubricants or artificial tears.

Conjunctivitis is a condition in which the tissue that lines the eyelids and covers the cornea becomes inflamed due to viral or bacterial infections. It can cause redness,  itching, burning, tearing, discharge, or a feeling of something in the eye. It is treated with antihistamines and can be prevented and controlled by maintaining proper personal hygiene like washing hands properly and not sharing personal items like handkerchiefs, towels etc.

Cataracts are cloudy areas that develop within the eye lens. When a cataract is present, the light cannot get through the lens as easily and, as a result, vision gets impaired. They often form slowly, causing no pain or symptoms in the eye. The cataractous lens is removed with the help of cataract surgery and is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens thereby restoring clear vision.

Glaucoma occurs when there is a typical and progressive deterioration of the optic nerve. It is often associated with an increased pressure of the eye which can be associated with damage to the optic nerve treatment may include prescription eye drops or surgery.

Glaucoma or ‘Kala Motia’ is a condition wherein an increased intraocular pressure caused by improper drainage of aqueous fluid in the eye. This increased pressure damages the optic nerve, which is the conduit of visual messages to the brain. Working silently, glaucoma irreversibly damages the vision and if not treated on time it may lead to complete blindness.

There is no proven way to prevent glaucoma. Frequent monitoring, regular checkups can help detect the disease in its early stage. Glaucoma cannot be cured but it can be controlled so that further damage to the optic nerve can be slowed or halted. This can only be done through disciplined and regular treatment through medical, surgical or laser management under a glaucoma specialist.

Retinal disorders damage the retina thereby disrupting the transfer of images to the brain. These disorders include age-related macular degeneration (ARMD or AMD),  diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment. Since the vision already lost through these diseases cannot be brought back through treatment, early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions is important to maintain vision.

Floaters are tiny spots or specks that float across the field of vision. Most people notice them in well-lit rooms or outdoors on a bright day. They can sometimes indicate a more serious eye problem, such as retinal detachment, especially if they are accompanied by light flashes. They are treated to the extent of possible correction by surgery in case of retinal detachment.

*The views expressed here are solely those of the author in his private capacity and do not in any way represent the views of Centre for Sight.

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