What is Glaucoma?
Glaucoma is the second most-leading cause of blindness around the world. In India, this eye disease is popularly known as ‘Kala Motia’. There are various forms of glaucoma which primarily affect our optic nerve. The main function of the optic nerves is to carry visual information to our brain
Glaucoma occurs in the case of Ocular Hypertension. It implies a situation when our optic nerve experience excessive intra-ocular pressure. The cause of Intra-ocular pressure is the blockage of channels which help to drain off the aqueous humour from our eyes. Eventually, the pressure is ought to cause damage to the optic nerve. Hence, it first leads to a loss of peripheral vision and can eventually cause blindness.
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Types of Glaucoma –
There are two prominent types of Glaucoma depending upon the inflicted angle of vision. The angle refers to the angle of the blocked nerve which restricts the flow of aqueous humour and thus causes the Intra-Ocular pressure on the optic nerve.
The types of Glaucoma can be categorized as-
1) Open-Angle Glaucoma – The case of Open-Angle Glaucoma is the most commonly occurring. Open-Angle Glaucoma occurs when the aqueous humour seems to access the drainage angle but cannot flow out of the nerves the way it should.
2) Narrow-Angle Glaucoma – A common disease in Asia, this type of Glaucoma is also called Angle-Closure Glaucoma or Chronic-angle glaucoma. In this case, the angle between the cornea and iris is extremely narrow. Thus, the aqueous doesn’t drain off. Hence, the Narrow- angle glaucoma is caused by an impulsive build up of intra-ocular pressure.
Symptoms of Glaucoma –
The symptoms of glaucoma vary depending upon the type of glaucoma. However, at the early stage of the disease, the symptoms are very faint. Thus, a timely diagnosis of the problem is required to eradicate the effects of the disease and prevent vision loss.
The 5 major symptoms of Glaucoma are
1) Blurry Vision – The presence of excessive aqueous on the frontal of the eye causes blurriness to our vision.
2) Extreme Eye Pain – Due to a blurred sight, the iris has to put more focus to identify objects and see clearly. It puts immense strain on the nerves. Above all, is the intra-ocular pressure damaging the optic nerve that results in immense pain in the eye.
3) Halos Around Light – Under the effect of Glaucoma, patients often visualize halos around the light. The reason behind it is the presence of excess aqueous in the eye.
4) Nausea and Vomiting – Nausea and Vomiting are two common symptoms that occur in case of both Open-Angle Glaucoma and Narrow-Angle Glaucoma.
5) Abrupt loss of Peripheral Vision – Loss of the peripheral vision is both a prominent symptom and a major consequence of the problem of glaucoma.
If you experience these 5 symptoms, it is Glaucoma. You must visit your Ophthalmologist for early diagnosis. Otherwise, Glaucoma can cause a major loss of vision or even blindness.