When you perceive two images of a similar thing, it is called diplopia. It is also referred to as double vision. Usually, it has an underlying cause. The transparent covering that protects the front of the eye is called the cornea, whose primary function is to focus light rays on the retina. Distortion in the cornea surface may result in double vision.
Diplopia may significantly impact your daily life. It can make simple tasks difficult, including driving or reading. To know more about double vision or diplopia disease, let’s discuss its meaning, types, causes, symptoms, and treatments.
Diplopia eye disease
The eye apparatus, eye muscles, and nerves that transmit information to the brain must all work together for normal vision. Any issue with these elements could result in diplopia i.e. when you see two pictures rather than one. Diplopia comes in two forms: monocular diplopia and binocular diplopia. A quick test will reveal what kind of diplopia you have.
Monocular and binocular diplopia
Your doctor will categorize your double vision disease after an eye check-up as monocular (affecting one eye) or binocular (affecting both eyes).
When you see double while using one eye, you have monocular diplopia. It might seem like a shadow. Refractive errors, change in eye’s shape that affects vision, or the early stages of cataract, and clouding of the eye’s lens, are common causes of monocular double vision. Monocular diplopia is more frequent and typically less severe.
When you see double while using both eyes, you have binocular diplopia. Binocular diplopia is caused by strabismus, a condition where the eyes are not aligned properly. Binocular diplopia can be caused by diseases that damage the cranial nerves that feed the muscles governing the eyes. When a person moves their eyes in a specific direction, such as down or up, or far to the left or right, binocular double vision may occasionally become noticeable. Binocular diplopia sufferers can stop seeing two images by closing one eye.
Causes of double vision
People frequently notice double vision after cataract surgery, which is usually transient and goes away in a few days. Looking at whether one eye or both eyes are damaged, there are numerous potential causes of double vision.
The following conditions can cause monocular diplopia:
- Dry eye:
Your eyes continually generate lubricating tears when you have dry eyes. When these fluids are present, it is more comfortable to blink or move your eyes. You can feel stinging, itching, and vision issues if there isn’t enough fluid.
- Severe astigmatism:
Extreme astigmatism causes an unevenly shaped cornea, the transparent layer at the front of the eye. Instead of being perfectly round like a basketball, the cornea has two curves on its surface akin to a football in those with astigmatism. Double or blurry vision may result from the astigmatic eye’s uneven shape and curve.
Your eye’s lens is generally clear, but a cataract over time makes it cloudy and foggy. This may cause vision issues, such as double vision.
The transparent lining in front of your eye (the cornea) starts to get thin and develops a cone-shaped bulge, which causes keratoconus. This bulge can result from double vision, impaired vision, and light sensitivity.
The following conditions can cause Binocular diplopia:
- Cranial nerve issue:
Your brain’s surface is covered in cranial nerves. These nerves may occasionally become paralyzed. You might get double vision as a result, among other vision issues.
- Nerve damage:
Information is transmitted between your eyes and your brain via the incredibly delicate nerves in your eyes. Any irritation or damage to the nerves can bring on double vision.
- Grave’s disease:
An overactive thyroid causes this immune system condition. Changes in thyroid function can bring on this immune system condition that affects eyesight.
- Convergence insufficiency:
The eyes do not act properly together in this condition. Although the exact origin is unknown, it is assumed that it is caused by the eye muscles not lining up properly.
Common symptoms of double vision
Depending on the underlying cause of the disease, one may also be on the lookout for additional double vision symptoms, such as:
- Moving your eyes can become painful
- Droopy eyelids
- Ocular misalignment, such as crossed or “wandering” eyes, can affect one or both eyes.
- Eye discomfort and fatigue, particularly around the eyebrows or temples
- Muscle weakness in the eyes
Diagnosis – An essential process for Diplopia Treatment
To identify the cause of your diplopia, your doctor will likely do a number of tests. They could try performing blood tests, a physical examination, or imaging tests like a CT or MRI. Your doctor can assess your eyesight using a series of painless tests to ascertain whether your double vision is binocular or monocular and whether your eyes are out of alignment.
If your doctor believes that your eyes are not aligned properly, he or she could ask you to look through a prism-shaped instrument. This tool bends the light that the doctor shines into your eyes, allowing the doctor to determine the severity of the misalignment. Knowing the level of misalignment enables your doctor in determining the origin of the double vision and the most effective course of treatment.
Double vision cure
When we talk about the causes and treatment, according to the cause and form of diplopia, each patient receives a different treatment for double vision. Vision problems dissolve with the appropriate treatment technique after discovering the underlying reason by a thorough eye examination. Here we will discuss some common treatments for diplopia:
- Eye exercises:
Just like other body muscles, our eye’s muscles might weaken. Your eye doctor can assist you in building up your eye muscles. They instruct you to use “exercises” that can rehabilitate your eye muscles.
- Corrective lenses:
The visual issue may be resolved using eyeglasses or specialized lenses.
- Eye patch:
Although an eye patch is not a long-term fix, covering one eye may help to eliminate double vision. An eye cover can help control double vision until a more long-term fix is found.
Surgery is sometimes necessary for conditions like cataracts or other eye disorders. The corrective technique eliminates double vision. In this treatment, optical or surgical techniques are frequently used to restore fixation with the eye that was previously dominant.
Double vision, also known as diplopia, is a condition where one experiences two pictures in place of one and can be accurately diagnosed by CFS specialists. For patients with double vision, our team of neuro-ophthalmologists offers a complete evaluation and creates a customized treatment plan. We offer the best treatment with the latest equipment and specialized eye procedures.
Article: Diplopia: Are You Suffering From Double Vision Disease Or Cornea Problems?
Author: CFS Editorial Team | Oct 05 2022 | UPDATED 02:00 IST
*The views expressed here are solely those of the author in his private capacity and do not in any way represent the views of Centre for Sight.