All age groups, from young toddlers to older adults, can get affected by eye tumours and their supporting tissues (Ocular Oncology). A specialized team of doctors, nurses, low vision and rehabilitation centers, as well as centers for ocular pathology services, genetic counseling, and prosthetic rehabilitation, are needed to treat eye tumours. With specialized facilities for treating a variety of eye tumours under one roof, Centre for Sight is the best of its kind in Delhi-NCR.
The term "ocular tumour" also applies to eye tumours.
Ocular tumours are another name for eye tumours. A mass of cells that develops irregularly is called orbital tumours. It may or may not be malignant. Cancerous tumours are referred to as malignant in medical terminology. The term benign refers to tumours that are not cancerous. The term "eye tumour" is a general description of various tumours affecting different eye regions. Retinoblastoma is the most well-known type of eye cancer. Different therapy and medications are used to treat ocular tumours, depending on their type and severity.
Types of Eye tumours
The different kinds of eye tomours include:
The most typical corneal malignant tumour in children is retinoblastoma. The majority of the time, this tumour appears as a white reaction, also known as a cat's eye reflex, affecting one or both eyes in children under five. These tumours originate in the retina and either endophytically (within the eye) or exophytically (outside the eye).
Melanoma develops from pigmented cells in the eye called melanocytes and can appear in the iris, choroid, or ciliary body. The colored part of the eye is called the iris. The Conjunctive is another possibility, manifesting as a dark-pigmented patch on the eye's surface. Melanomas are typically aggressive, malignant tumours that usually affect the elderly. If they are not promptly diagnosed and treated, they can spread to other body areas and be fatal. An eye surgeon with specialized training in detecting and treating eye cancer can detect melanoma by performing a thorough examination of the eye (ocular oncologist).
Orbital tumours can be primary or metastatic, benign or cancerous. In young or middle-aged individuals, Cavernous hemangioma is the most prevalent benign tumour of the orbit. With or without a palpable or evident mass surrounding the eyeball, orbital tumours manifest as gradual bulging or displacement of the eyeball. Most orbital tumours are removed surgically, while certain aggressive malignant tumours may also require chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), also known as conjunctival and corneal carcinoma, is a frequent eye tumour. Typically, a reddish or pink bump identifies this malignancy. Commonly, straightforward surgery or topical chemotherapies are used as treatments.
Choroidal melanoma is the second most prevalent type of primary malignant melanoma in the body. However, it is a tumour that is rarely detected. Uveal melanoma has a subtype known as choroidal melanoma. Choroid-related intraocular tumours are uncommon and highly varied. As a result, these tumours can be challenging to diagnose and treat.
Cavernous hemangioma tumour:
A cavernous hemangioma is a benign tumour in the eye socket, which is the area behind the eye. It could result in the eye bulging without pain (called proptosis). It may occasionally be treated surgically, but smaller tumours may not require removal.
Optic nerve tumors:
Optic nerve tumours are growths that can appear on the optic nerve. While most of these tumours are benign, some are seriously malignant and can be life-threatening if untreated. Tumour optic nerve can take many different forms, however, the following are the most typical ones: Glioma. Your optic nerve, which connects your eye and brain, swells in papilledema, also known as a swollen optic nerve brain tumour. This swelling is a response to a buildup of pressure in or around your brain, which a variety of factors may bring on.
Symptoms of eye tumours
Eye tumours may not always show signs immediately and may only be discovered during a routine eye exam.
Eye tumour symptoms might consist of:
- shadows, bright spots, or zigzag lines in your field of vision
- clouded vision,
- a dark spot in your eyesight that is getting bigger,
- partial or complete vision loss,
- a bulge in one eye
- a swelling in your eye or on your eyelid that is getting bigger
- eye pain or eye-related discomfort, but this is uncommon
These signs don't always indicate malignancy because less serious eye problems can also bring them on. But it's essential to see a doctor as soon as possible to get the symptoms examined.
What are the treatments for eye tumours?
Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are the three primary treatment options for eye malignancies. A multidisciplinary team makes the decision and adapts it to the particular patient's demands. It relies on a number of variables. These consist of:
- The grade of an eye tumour, affects how severe it is and it is potential for malignancy
- The rate of tumour growth, the size and stage of the tumour after diagnosis, the amount of local and distant spread
- Where the tumour is located, whether it is on the eyelid, conjunctiva, inside the eye, or has spread more widely
- General health, existing conditions, age at presentation, and patient preference
Below is a list of the different options based on the above-mentioned issues:
Laser therapy: It uses a focused laser beam to locally eradicate the tumour cells.
Brachytherapy or plaque therapy:
The treatment is directed to the precise spot alone using a plate impregnated with the therapeutic chemical, limiting harm to nearby tissue.
Several contemporary radiation treatments, including proton therapy, have shown a better track record in dose delivery accuracy, minimizing collateral damage to the surrounding areas. These treatments deliver radiation that destroys the tumour cells without harming the delicate tissues.
It includes the removal of the eyeball, but not the eyelids or the muscles around the eyes. The eye surgeon can later fit a prosthesis or artificial eye for improved cosmetic outcomes.
consists of removing some of the eye's contents while leaving the sclera, or the white component of the eye, in place. A prosthetic eye, which can be a cosmetic eye with no vision, is needed for both enucleation and evisceration.
It is a major procedure requiring removing the eye and all orbital contents. A specially constructed prosthesis can be attached to maintain the appearance of the face.
It involves fighting cancer cells with the help of specific medications that can be taken orally or supplied through injection.
Article: Eye Tumour Treatment At Centre for Sight
Author: CFS Editorial Team | Sep 13 2022 | UPDATED 02:07 IST
*The views expressed here are solely those of the author in his private capacity and do not in any way represent the views of Centre for Sight.